Garry Kimovich Kasparov was born as Garri Weinstein in Baku, Azerbaijan, in 1963. He learned chess from his father, who died when Garri was seven years old. He subsequently adopted his mother's maiden name. At the age of twelve, Kasparov won the Azerbaijan championship and the USSR junior championship. At the age of sixteen, he won the world junior championship. At the age of seventeen, he earned the International Grandmaster title. In 1984 he earned the right to challenge the Russian world champion, Anatoly Karpov. At the age of twenty-two, in 1985, he became the youngest world chess champion in history. He defended his title and defeated Karpov again, in 1986. In 1987, their contest resulted in an impasse. Kasparov defeated Karpov again, in 1990. In 1993, the competition was stopped, by Florencio Campomanes, the president of the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE). It was because the competition had lasted six months without a final result. Karpov requested that the competition be stopped for several months, so he could rest and study before resuming the battle. This was unprecedented, and Kasparov was furious. He broke away from FIDE and created the Professional Chess Association (PCA). Kasparov played a PCA championship competition against Nigel Short. Meanwhile, FIDE sanctioned a championship competition between Karpov and Jan Timman. Kasparov and Karpov won their respective competitions, and both men claimed the title of world champion. In 1995 Kasparov retained his PCA title and defeated Viswanathan Anand, but the PCA was dissolved soon afterward.
In 1996, Kasparov competed against an IBM computer, Deep Blue. It was the first time a world champion had competed against a computer under standard competition conditions. Deep Blue was capable of processing millions of chess positions per second. With the brute force of artificial intelligence, Deep Blue won the first game of the competition. It was the first computer to defeat a world champion, under regulation time controls. Kasparov subsequently defeated Deep Blue by a score of four games to two, and won the competition. A year later, Kasparov played against an enhanced version of Deep Blue. This machine was capable of processing two-hundred million chess positions per second. Kasparov won the first game, but was defeated by a score of 3.5 games to 2.5. It was the first time that an international grandmaster had lost a series of games to a computer. In November 2000, Kasparov lost his world title in a competition against his former pupil, Vladimir Kramnik.
SourcesMicrosoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Edited by Michael Hawes
Wilma Mankiller came from a large family and lived for many years on their farm in Oklahoma. The land was allotted to her paternal grandfather, John Mankiller, in 1907. It is a place where the worth of a person is not determined by the size of their bank account. Her surname, Mankiller, is an ancient Cherokee title for a person who is responsible for protecting a village.
They were a poor family, but there were always books around the house. Her father's love for books was one of the best gifts that he gave to his children. It reflected the traditional Cherokee passion for sharing stories. The Bureau of Indian Affairs conducted a relocation program in the 1950s. The purpose was to disperse the population and to obtain their land, which was rich with petroleum. In 1959, the family moved to San Francisco. Wilma's father got a job and Wilma went to school. This was not a happy time for her. She remembered her farm, and she hated the school. The white children tormented her. Mankiller decided to go to live with her grandmother, Pearl Sitton. She stayed for a year. She returned to San Francisco with her confidence restored. She became involved with the San Francisco Indian Center. The Center had social and cultural activities for youth. It was also a place for to have powwows and to meet other relocated people. Mankiller became politicized and reinforced her identity as a Cherokee. In November 1969, Alcatraz Island was occupied by a group of Native Americans. Mankiller participated in this protest and was transformed by the experience. On Alcratraz, she began to regain her equilibrium. Mankiller became active in developing the cultural resources of the Native American community. She helped to build a school and a center for adult education. She was also the director of a youth center. Her enthusiasm compensated for any lack of skills. But she was a natural leader. She returned to Okalahoma to work at the Urban Indian Resource Center, and as a volunteer in the community.
In 1981, she founded the Cherokee Community Development Department. As its director, she orchestrated the renovation of the local water system. She helped the town of Bell, Oklahoma, to rise above its situation of squalor and despair. In 1983, she was a candidate for Deputy Chief of the Cherokee Nation. The campaign was not easy. There had never been a female leader of a Native American tribe. She encountered opposition from the men. Her days were troubled by threats of death and by vandalism. She sought advice for ways to cope with the constant insults. Her philosophy became: Do not argue with a fool. Because other people cannot tell who is the fool. She was elected as the first female Deputy Chief. Her wise leadership vindicated her supporters and proved her detractors to be wrong. In 1985, Chief Ross Swimmer, went away to the American capitol. Mankiller was obligated to take over his position. She became the first female Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation. Mankiller won the next tribal election in 1987. As the leader of the Cherokee people, she represented the second to largest tribe in America. The largest is the Navajo. Wilma managed a population of over 140,000, an annual budget of more than 75 million dollars, and more than 1,200 employees. Her territory was spread over 7,000 square miles. In 1990, Oklahoma State University honored her with the Henry G. Bennett Distinguished Service Award. Poor health forced her to retire in 1995, but Wilma Mankiller continues to be a political, cultural, and spiritual leader. She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, by President Clinton, in 1988. This is the highest civilian honor in America.
She has shown us that Native Americans and white people can learn from each other. Many white people are beginning to understand the value of native wisdom, culture, and spirituality. Spirituality is the key to the public and private life of Wilma Mankiller. She says, "After every big upheaval, we have been able to gather together as a people and to rebuild. Individually and collectively, Cherokee people possess an extraordinary ability to face adversity. Because our culture has sustained us since time immemorial. This culture is a closely kept secret." Now Wilma shares her home with her husband, Charlie Soap, and Winterhawk, his son.
myhero.com © Susannah Abbey
Edited by Michael Hawes
Dr. Marilyn Waring is a farmer, an international economic consultant, and a senior lecturer on social policy at the Albany Campus, in New Zealand. Her farm is located to the north of Auckland. Farming makes her aware of environmental conserns. She does some of her best thinking in the goat's barn. Marilyn received an Honours Bachelor of Art, in Political Science and International Politics, from Victoria University, of Wellington, in 1973. At the age of twenty-two, Marilyn was elected Member of Parliament in the New Zealand. She retained this position from 1975 to 1984. She served as Chair of the Public Expenditures Committee, Senior Government Member of the Foreign Affairs Committee, and on the Disarmament and Arms Control Committee. As a Member of Parliament, she cast the decisive vote, to institute a policy of no nuclear weapons in New Zealand.
In 1988 she published, If Women Counted. In 1989, she was awarded a Doctorate of Philosophy, in Political Economy. In 1990, she was awarded the Research Council Grant, of the University of Waikato, to continue her work on female human rights. From 1991 to 1994, she was the Senior Lecturer on Public Policy, and the Politics of Human Rights, with the Department of Politics, at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. She has worked as a consultant for the Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Nations Development Fund for Women, the Territorial Government of Yukon, the Ford Foundation, and the Provincial Government of Ontario. She has also written, Three Masquerades: Essays on Equality, Work, and Human Rights. Her first book exposes the folly of governments that ignore the unpaid work of women. Why? Here is one example: In many parts of the world, the excrement of animals is a precious resource. Women follow herds of animals. They scoop up the excrement in their bare hands, and put it in baskets. Then they carry the baskets home. The loads are heavy and the work is hard. But it is a matter of survival. This resource is used for fertilizer, for fuel, and as a basic building material. Milk, skins, meat, and animal by-products, are all included in the livestock production accounts of a nation. But not excrement. Nor is it recorded in energy production accounts. The hours that women worked to collect, transport, and process it, are not recorded as work. The women's contribution to agriculture is not included or is underestimated, in the official statistics. A survey of an Asian country in 1994, reported that 92% of women, over ten years of age, were inactive. The survey also reported that only 0.5% of the female population had participated in agriculture.
The government statistician who was responsible for the survey, told Marilyn, "They expect me to count women who collect fodder, fuel, and water. That is every woman in the country. They must be crazy, if they think I will do that!" The exclusion of the unpaid work of women from national accounts raises crucial policy questions. The rhetoric that is used to exclude these activities, says that they have little effect on micro-economic activity, and have no effect on macro-economic activity. But the consequences are immense. In Nepal, for example, the World Bank estimated that eight million tons of excrement are burned for fuel each year. The use of excrement for fuel, instead of for fertilizer, is an example of import substitution. It represents a national saving. Debt would have resulted from the importation of commercial fuels, if women had not processed an alternative. The method by which unpaid work is counted, can also have significant policy implications. In Bangladesh, for example, the 1984 population census reported that 90% of the rural female labour force were housewives. This category was excluded from the survey's definition of economic activity. A questionnaire from the previous year, reported that the majority of rural housewives did food processing, and other agricultural duties. In 1992, Bangladesh conducted a survey of its labour force and continued to exclude housework from its revised definition. It included the unpaid agricultural work. Being counted in 1992 is no guarantee that the rural women of Bangladesh can have access to bank credit, or to agricultural classes at agricultural development projects. There is a documentary on this same topic, Who's Counting? Marilyn Waring on Sex, Lies and Global Economics.
Marilyn is known for explaining bewildering economic theories in simple language that is easily understood. She attributes this ability to her mastery of questioning. She says that when you question, most people are pleased, because they do not know the answer either. She defines economics as a value system, in which all goods and activities are related only to their monetary value. Activities that are hazardous to us and our environment are often regarded as productive. The weapons industry, for example. Marilyn has an alternative economic vision. It is based on the idea that time is the only thing that everyone has in equal abundance for exchange. Marilyn helped me to better understand why our world is out of balance. Read Marilyn's lecture, Will the World Economy Produce Only World Culture?
Copyright 1997 © International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada
John Eberlee: editor of IDRC Reports online
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International Society for the Performing Arts Foundation
Edited by Michael Hawes
Richard Phillips Feynman, an American physicist. Born on May 11, 1918, in New York City. He died on February 15, 1988. As a child, he was fascinated by mathematics and electronics. He became known in his neighborhood as the boy who repairs radios. Feynman graduated with a bachelor’s degree in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1939. He obtained a Ph.D. degree in physics from Princeton University in 1942. His thesis was, A Principle of Least Action in Quantum Mechanics. He developed the theory of Quantum Electrodynamics, or QED. This theory is concerned with the interaction of electromagnetic waves with atoms. The interaction of light with atoms and electrons. Feynman worked at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where the first nuclear weapons were being designed. He was responsible for the computations that were used to predict the behavior of neutrons in atomic explosions. After the war, Feynman moved to Cornell University. Hans Bethe was building a school of theoretical physicists there. Feynman continued to work on QED. He was a professor at the California Institute of Technology, until 1950. Feynman was renowned as an enthusiastic teacher and for being a notorious practical joker. He made two discoveries while in California. Using liquid helium, he developed the Theory of Superfluidity. Superfluidity is a state in which a substance flows with no resistance. Feynman and Murray Gell Mann studied the force that causes slow nuclear reactions, such as beta decay. The emission of electrons or positrons by radioactive substances.
They also studied the force that holds together the nucleus of an atom. Feynman predicted that protons and neutrons were composed of smaller particles. Today we know that he was correct. We call these smaller particles, quarks. He published a written version of his undergraduate lectures in 1963. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. These are a standard reference in physics. Two other men had been working independently on QED. Julian Schwinger and Tomonaga Shin’ichiro. In 1965, the three men shared the Nobel Prize in physics for their work on QED. Each man had developed his own method for calculating the interaction between electrons, positrons, and photons. QED is the most accurate physical theory. Feynman used diagrams to illustrate how particles moved in space and time. He defined the rules for calculating the probability for each diagram. He then added the probabilities of all the diagrams. The result was the probability of the physical process. Feynman's diagrams became the standard way of representing particle interactions. Feynman wrote thirty-seven research papers in his career. He also wrote collections of anecdotes about his life. Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman and What Do YOU Care What Other People Think? He loved to play the bongo drums. He dreamed of visiting Tuva.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Edited by Michael Hawes
"Site of the last home of Bowles, great chief of the Cherokee Nation. Here he received President Lamar's decree of expulsion from Texas, of the Cherokees and associate tribes, in June, 1839. Chief Bowles was killed in decisive battle in Van Zandt County on July 16, 1839 and the tribes were expelled."
Chief Bowles or Duwa'li, was born in North Carolina circa 1756. He had auburn hair, blue eyes, and was a half-blood Scotch-Cherokee. It is said that settlers from North Carolina killed his father when he was fourteen years old. It is also said that the boy killed the murderers of his father. Bowles became the chief of the town of Running Water, Tennessee when he was thirty two. In June 1794, some boats were sailing down the Tennessee River. William Scott and a man named Stewart wanted to do some business. They invited Bowles and some others on board their boat and gave them whiskey. The Cherokees bought things for very high prices until their money was gone. After they were sober, they realized that they had been cheated. Bowles then returned all of the merchandise and tried to get the money back. He was sent ashore. He took two warriors with him and tried again. He warned the traders that they must fight or return the money. Stewart and Scott killed one warrior. Bowles escaped, but returned and killed all the white men on the boat. Bowles was afraid because the Cherokees had a treaty with the Americans. Bowles and his warriors sailed down the Tennessee River, the Ohio River, and the Mississippi River in the captured boat. Then they sailed up the Saint Francis River to Missouri. The Cherokees in Tennessee told the American government that they would help to find and to arrest Bowles. When Bowles learned of this, he decided to stay in Missouri. Many more Cherokees came to live with him. After the American government investigated, they said that Bowles was justified in what he did. Chief Bowles and his people lived in the valley of the Saint Francis River until 1811, when a violent earthquake happened. The people thought that the Great Spirit was warning them to move.
Many of them moved to Arkansas. One third of the Eastern Cherokees were living west of the Mississippi River by 1813. Chief Bowles and his followers travelled south into Mexican territory. Many other people had also left their homelands to escape the European invasion. Alabama, Biloxi, Caddo, Choctaw, Cushatta, Delaware, Ioni, Kichia, Kickapoo, Mataquo, Shawnee, Tahocullake, Taovaya, Tawakoni, Quapaw, and Waco people formed an alliance with the Cherokees. Bowles and six other chiefs obtained a grant to 1.5 million acres of land from the Mexican government. Some European settlers wanted to lead a revolution and make a new republic out of this northern part of Mexico. They asked the Cherokees for help. The Cherokee warriors fought the Apaches and the Comanches to the west. This enabled the revolutionaries to fight the Mexican Army in the south. The revolution was a success and the Republic of Texas was born. In return for their help, the Cherokee land was guaranteed by Sam Houston. The future President of the Republic of Texas. He promised that a new land title would be made. The document sat on his desk for a year and it was never ratified. When Mirabeau B. Lamar became the second president of the Republic, he refused to honor Houston's agreement. He tore up the paper. Lamar then sent a decree of expulsion to the chiefs. He had used the same tactics in Georgia when he was Governor there. Chief Bowles asked his people if they wanted to fight to hold their land. They decided to fight. Secretary of War of Texas, Albert Sydney Johnston, and General Thomas J. Rusk were sent to enforce the decree. The Battle of the Neches began on July 15. The Texas Militia burned a Delaware village and then attacked the other people. Approximately eight hundred men, women, and children were slaughtered. On July 16, Chief Bowles was shot in the leg and his horse was wounded. The Chief began to walk on the battle field. He was shot in the back.
The chief sat down and faced the Texas Militia. He began to sing a death chant. The captain of the militia approached, placed a pistol to his head and killed him. Bowles was 83 years old. Some people cut long pieces of skin from his corpse. These were used to make souvenir reins. His body was left unburied. On July 16th 1839, a dream of cultural and religious freedom ended in a bloody massacre. President Lamar made a speech before the Texas Legislature and declared that "eastern Texas is now free of all Indians." European settlers were encouraged to move onto the vacant farms. The survivors scattered. Some went to Mexico, some went to Oklahoma, and others hid in the forests of eastern Texas. Those who remained in Texas had to conceal their heritage, to escape persecution and death. A marker stands at the site of the battleground. On July 16 1995, in Cherokee County, Texas, near the town of Tyler, descendants of those tribes and their friends, had a funeral service for Chief Bowles. 156 years after his death. Also to remember the other lives that were lost in the battle. The site was purchased in 1997 by the American Indian Heritage Center of Texas. The place of the massacre is sacred. Blood and tear-drops have stained the soil. The spirits of the vanquished linger.
Pitter's Cherokee Trails
Pat L. Talley
Edited by Michael Hawes
Heinrich Schliemann, a German businessman and a brilliant pioneer in the field of archaeology. He is best known for his excavations at ancient Troy and Mycenae. He was born in the duchy of Mecklenburg Schwerin. Schliemann was mostly self-educated. Because his family was poor, he was apprenticed to a grocer at the age of 14. He continued to study. He had an exceptional ability to learn foreign languages and had a remarkable aptitude for business. He became a successful businessman in Russia and traveled widely. He became an American citizen while he was in California in 1850. He retired from business at the age of 41, with a lot of money. It was 1863 and he devoted himself and his wealth to archaeology. Schliemann has been criticized for his style of quick and destructive excavation. Other archaeologists came after him and worked the lands surrounding the Aegean more methodically. But he deserves credit for creating a method to restore our knowledge of lost civilizations. His importance in the history of archaeology is not because of the accuracy of his theories or his skill as an excavator. Schliemann proved that preclassical Bronze Age civilizations had flourished in the Aegean area. Before Schliemann, this civilization was not known to have existed! He created a new field of research. His discoveries at Troy and Mycenae proved that the world of the Iliad was not totally fanciful.
Stories of his life and discoveries have been based primarily on his own publications. David A. Traill and William M. Calder III have compared these publications with his letters, and with his diaries. This investigation has created some controversy. Frank Calvert was a British citizen and an American consul in northwestern Turkey. He had lived there since childhood. He had explored many archaeological locations in the region, and had conducted brief excavations. Some scholars think that Calvert believed that a large hill, called Hissarlik, probably contained the remains of Troy. He bought the northern part of the hill and began to dig in 1865. He discovered some Bronze Age remains below a classical temple to Athena. Schliemann visited the area in 1868. Calvert convinced him of its antiquity. He offered to allow Schliemann to dig on his land in exchange for half of the treasure. Schliemann's most important discovery at Troy was a collection of bronze, silver, and gold artifacts, known as Priam's Treasure. He said that he found the treasure on the ruins of the city wall, where it had been carried from the royal palace. However, evidence suggests that Schliemann found these objects in different places, over a period of weeks or months. It is possible that some of them came from tombs that were located outside of the city wall. Frank Calvert's descendants say that some of it was discovered on their property, and that Schliemann did not give half of it to Calvert. Russian troops took this treasure from Berlin to the Pushkin Museum in Russia, after World War II. Turkey, Greece, Germany, Russia, and Calvert's heirs, all think they have some claim to this important collection of precious artifacts. It is my belief that burial items, human remains, and cultural artifacts should stay in the place where they are discovered. A museum in Chicago has returned some human remains to their place of origin on the Queen Charlotte Islands. This is a good example for others to follow.
The ruins of Troy are in western Turkey. They extend along a hillside that is 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and equidistant from the Dardanelles. The hill is known as Hissarlik. Troy was also known as Ilium. The legendary founder of the city was Ilus, the son of Tros. The son of Ilus was Laomedon, who was slain by Hercules. The Trojan War occurred during the reign of Laomedon's son, Priam. This resulted in the capture and destruction of the city. On this hill are the remnants of at least nine successive cities. Troy I: Habitations from 3000 bc with a wall of small stones and clay. Troy II: A fortress from the 3rd millennium bc with strong ramparts, a palace, and houses. Troy III, IV, and V: Prehistoric villages from 2300 to 2000 bc built on the debris of Troy II. Troy VI: A fortress from 1900 to 1300 bc with huge walls, towers, gates, and houses. It is larger than any of the preceding settlements. Troy VIIA: A reconstruction of Troy VI, built after the city had been destroyed by an earthquake. Troy VIIB and VIII: Greek villages from 1100 bc to the 1st century bc with simple stone-houses. Troy IX: The acropolis of the Greco-Roman city of Ilion from the 1st century bc to ad 500 with a temple of Athena, public buildings, and a large theater. Schliemann began to dig at Troy in 1870, and discovered the first five cities. He identified Troy II as the Homeric Troy.
From 1876 to 1878, Schliemann excavated the Treasury of Atreus and the Tomb of Clytemnestra at Mycenae. Mycenae is an ancient city on the plain of Argolis, Greece. The culture that developed in mainland Greece during the late phase of the Bronze Age, was named for it. Other great centers of Mycenaean culture included Tiryns and Pylos. The Mycenaeans were celebrated by Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey. He called them Achaeans. They may have been among the tribes that arrived in Greece around 2000 bc as part of the Indo-European migration. Their language was an early Greek dialect. It was written in a script that is known as Linear B. Circa 1400 bc, Mycenae reached its height as the center of Aegean Civilization. It superseded the Minoans of Crete. Mycenae was the home of King Agamemnon from the House of Atreus. It was the leading city in the Greek world, until 1200 bc. It deteriorated primarily because of civil war. The city never regained its former splendor, and circa 468 bc, it was destroyed by the inhabitants of Árgos and was never rebuilt. The ruins of Mycenae include the Cyclopean Walls, the Lion Gate, and the Beehive Tombs. The ruins of the city are near the modern town of Mikínai. Schliemann made excavations at Ithaca in 1878, and at Orchomenus in 1881-82. In 1884-85 he unearthed the ruins of the great palace at Tiryns, Greece. Schliemann's work was continued after his death, by his assistant, Wilhelm Dörpfeld. Dörpfeld's discoveries proved that the Homeric Troy must be identified with Troy VIIA, which was destroyed by fire at the time of the Trojan War. Between 1932 and 1938 new work was carried on at the site by the University of Cincinnati, under the direction of Carl Blegen. He confirmed Dörpfeld's discoveries.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
William H. Stiebing, Jr.
Edited by Michael Hawes
Giordano Bruno, (1548?-1600), Italian Renaissance philosopher and poet. Bruno influenced subsequent intellectuals, who then nurtured modern science and the Reformation. Bruno was born at Nola, near Naples. His name was Filippo, but he took the name Giordano when he joined the Dominicans. They trained him in Aristotelian philosophy and Thomistic theology. He was an independent thinker with a tempestuous spirit. He fled in 1576 to avoid going to trial. He travelled to Geneva, Toulouse, Paris and London. He spent two years in London, from 1583 to 1585, under the protection of the French ambassador. He stayed in the social circle of an English poet, Sir Philip Sidney. He composed Ash Wednesday Supper (1584), On the Infinite Universe and Worlds (1584) and On the Cause, Principle and Unity (1584). Another poetic dialogue was, Gli Eroici Furori (1585). This book expressed his respect for the Platonic love that joins the soul to God through wisdom. Bruno advocated philosophical theories that were a blend of mystical neoplatonism and pantheism. He believed in an infinite universe. He thought of God as a universal soul that manifested itself as all material things. Bruno developed the philosophical implications of the Copernican theory. Bruno was a forerunner of modern philosophy. He influenced Spinoza. He anticipated the monism of the seventeenth century. In 1585, Bruno went to Paris, Marburg an der Lahn, Wittenberg, Prague, Helmstedt and Frankfurt. In Frankfurt, he arranged to print his manuscripts. Giovanni Mocenigo invited Bruno to be his tutor in Italy. He denounced Bruno in 1592. The Inquisition charged him with blasphemy, immoral conduct and heresy. He was imprisoned for eight years. He was immolated in Campo dei Fiori, on February 17, 1600. Almost three hundred years later, a statue was erected on this site. It is dedicated to the freedom of thought.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.All rights reserved.
Desmond J. Fitzgerald
Edited by Michael Hawes
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900), German philosopher, poet, and classical philologist. He was a provocative and influential thinker of the 19th century. Nietzsche was born in Röcken, Prussia. His father was a Lutheran minister and he died when Nietzsche was five years old. Nietzsche lived with his mother, his grandmother, his two aunts, and his sister. He studied classical philology at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig. At the age of 24, he was appointed professor of classical philology at the University of Basel. Poor eyesight and migraines forced him to retire in 1879. Ten years later, he suffered a mental breakdown and he never recovered. He died in Weimar in 1900. Nietzsche exerted much influence on the literature and theology of Germany and France. His concepts have been discussed by Karl Jaspers, Martin Heidegger, Martin Buber, Paul Tillich, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre.
Nietzsche was influenced by Greek culture, Plato, Aristotle, Schopenhauer, Darwin, and Richard Wagner. Nietzsche’s first major work was, The Birth of Tragedy (1872). His most prolific period as an author was the decade of 1880-1890. During this decade, he wrote Also sprach Zarathustra (Parts I-III, 1883-1884; Part IV, 1885); Beyond Good and Evil (1886); On the Genealogy of Morals (1887); The Antichrist (1888); and Ecce Homo (completed 1888, published 1908). Nietzsche’s last major work, Will to Power, was published in 1901. It was a fundamental contention of Nietzsche that the traditional values of Christianity had lost their power in the lives of individuals. He proclaimed, “God is dead.” He was convinced that traditional values represented a “slave morality." A morality created by weak, resentful people who encouraged gentleness and kindness, because it served their interests. Nietzsche claimed that new values should be created. This led to his concept of the superman. The ideal superman is secure, independent, and highly individualistic. He feels deeply, but his passions are rationally controlled. He concentrates on the real world, rather than on the rewards promised in the next world. The superman affirms life, including the suffering and the pain of human existence. He is a creator of values, a creator of a “master morality.” He is liberated from all values, except those that he deems valid. Nietzsche did not believe that any supermen existed in his time. A list of people that he thought could serve as models: Jesus, Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julius Caesar, and Napoleon. Nietzsche maintained that all human behavior is motivated by the "will to power." The will to power is not only the power over others, but also the power over ourselves. This power is manifested as independence, creativity, and originality.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Edited by Michael Hawes
The History of Sequoyah and his Syllabary for the Cherokee Language
"Your invention of the alphabet is worth more to your people
than two bags full of gold in the hands of every Cherokee." -Sam Houston
Tradition tells us that Sequoyah or S-si-qua-ya, was born in the west of Chillhowee Mountain, which is approximately one and a half miles east of Tasgigi, Monroe County, Tennessee. This is eight miles from Echota, the capital of the old Cherokee Nation. He was born sometime between 1760 to 1765. Sequoyah said that an Iroquoian peace delegation visited New Echota in 1770, when he was a small boy living with his mother. In Washington in 1828, he told Samuel Knapp that he was 65. His signature is written in the Cherokee syllabary as S-si-qua-ya, but an annotation on the Treaty of 1828, says that his English name was George Guess. Because the traditional Cherokee society is matrilineal, this information is of utmost relevance to the research of his history. His mother was Wutehe and she belonged to the Red Paint Clan. She had two brothers, Tahlonteeska and Tahnoyanteehee. The only information regarding his father is a statement which appeared in the Cherokee Phoenix on August 13, 1828. It said that his paternal grandfather was a white man. His father was half Cherokee and his mother was a full Cherokee. His father was either George Gist, a German peddler, or Nathaniel Gist, a friend of George Washington. Sequoyah also had at least two brothers. One brother was Tobacco Will. He was a blacksmith in Arkansas and also a signatory of the Cherokee Constitution. Chief Dutch or Ugeweledv, was another brother.
Many historians have mentioned that Sequoyah was lame. The Cherokee Advocate on June 26, 1845, says, "He was the victim of hydro-arthritic trouble of the knee." Because of this physical limitation, he worked for many years as a trader. His mother was also a trader and he carried on her business after her death in 1800. He later became a silversmith and a blacksmith. He made his own tools and also constructed his own forge. In 1809, Sequoyah had a discussion with some friends in his shop about the European way of communicating by writing. Many thought that it was witchcraft, but Sequoyah knew that it was not. He thought of inventing an alphabet for the Cherokee. His plans were interrupted by the War of 1812. He volunteered at Turkeytown, on October 7, 1813. A month later he was in the battle of Tallaschatche. He served for three months, and then he re-enlisted. On March 27, 1814, he fought in the battle of Horseshoe Bend. Fifteen days later he was paid $66.80 for 147 days of service.
In 1815, Sequoyah married Sally Waters of the Bird Clan. Her parents were Robert and Lydia Otterlifter, and her brother was Michael Waters. Sequoyah continued to work on his writing system. His first idea was to make a symbol for each word in the language. The number of symbols became too large. Then he focused on the individual sounds that made up the words. He discovered that there were 85 individual syllables in the Cherokee language. These could be used to form any word. His first student was Michael Waters, and the first person to use the syllabary, was his daughter, Ayoka. Although the system was easy to learn, Sequoyah and Ayoka were charged with witchcraft. They were brought to trial. A group of warriors acted as judges. The warriors isolated Sequoyah from his daughter. They had to send messages to each other, until the judges were convinced that the symbols represented words. After the trial, the warriors asked Sequoyah to teach them. After a week, they were able to read and write Cherokee. Within a few months, most of the Cherokee Nation had become literate. This helped to preserve their history, culture, and spiritual practices. The syllabary was completed after Sequoyah arrived in Polk County, Arkansas. He went to the east in 1821, to present it to the tribe. Then he returned to Indian Territory in 1822. In 1824, the Cherokee Nation gave Sequoyah a silver medal.
In January 1828, Sequoyah went with a group of Arkansas Cherokees to sign a treaty in Washington. Article Five of that treaty said, "It is further agreed that America will pay five hundred dollars to George Guess, a Cherokee, for the great benefit he has given to the Cherokee people." Sequoyah received only $300. In 1829 the American government moved Sequoyah and 2500 Cherokees from Arkansas to Oklahoma. The new land was occupied by the Osage Nation. Sequoyah settled near Sallisaw, Oklahoma. He built a house that today is open to the public. The Cherokee Advocate, June 26, 1845, has a story of the last journey of Sequoyah. The story is told by The Worm, a Cherokee who traveled with him. In 1842, Sequoyah, his son Teesey, The Worm, and six other men crossed over the Arkansas River near Fort Gibson. Fifteen days later, they crossed over the Red River near the town of Sherman, Texas. For 35 days they traveled through the Wichita villages along the Red River. Sequoyah became very ill from a lack of food. He purchased three bushels of corn from the Wichita and his health improved. Everyone returned to the Cherokee Nation except Sequoyah, The Worm, and Teesey. These three men continued to travel southwards. Their horses were stolen eighty miles north of San Antonio, Texas. Sequoyah sent The Worm and Teesey to San Antonio to get more horses and food. When they arrived, they obtained food, but there were no horses. The Worm and Teesey returned to Sequoyah. He told them that he wanted to stay, while they went to Mexico to find horses. They found a cave for his shelter. They gave him honey and venison.
The journey to the south took nineteen days. They came to a large river. They started to build a raft and a Mexican told them that there was a ferry downstream. When they reached the ferry, The Worm and Teesey were led to a town that was six miles away. According to The Worm, "An officer asked us to walk with him. We followed him for some time. It was after noon and the shops were closed. A soldier told us to go back to our lodgings. The soldiers were on parade. We walked with them until we came to a public square. There were large kettles of soup, beef, and bread. I ate with difficulty, because the food was highly seasoned with pepper. On the second morning, we left and we went to the town of San Cranto, thirty miles away. We spent the night. We found a Cherokee whose name was Rock. He answered many of our questions. We were told that the Cherokees in Mexico would be happy to see Sequoyah." Rock, Teesey, and The Worm went to the Cherokee village. It was situated in a grove of trees that was a mile wide and three miles long. The village was ten miles from San Cranto. The Cherokees had no horses to give to them. They returned to San Cranto and borrowed a horse from the Mexican Army. They were supplied with bread, meat, salt, sugar, and coffee. After seventeen days they reached the Mauluke River. They crossed over it and found the tracks of Sequoyah. They went to the cave and Sequoyah was not there. They found a message. It said that all of his supplies had been lost in a flood. They followed his tracks and found him on the next day.
They found him sitting by a fire. He had suffered greatly. He told them that some Delawares had given him a horse and fresh supplies. They stayed for five days. Time enough to hunt for a good supply of meat. Then they all went to a Mexican village near the river. Sequoyah stayed in the village and The Worm went to get the stolen horses. A group of Caddos from Mexico reported that Sequoyah had died in the town of San Fernando, in the month of August, 1843. His death was not reported to the Cherokee Nation for two years. Sequoyah gave the Cherokee the ability to read and write. Without the need for teachers, and at no financial cost!
Native Americans did not use written languages before the immigration of Europeans. In 1828, the first native American newspaper was published in Cherokee and in English. It is spoken by 10,000 to 20,000 people in northeastern Oklahoma, and another 1000 people near the Qualla Reservation in North Carolina. Cherokee represents the southern part of the Iroquoian language family. The northern part includes Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, and Seneca Cayuga. The linguistic split occurred about 3000 years ago, when the Cherokee migrated from the Great Lakes, to Tennessee, Georgia, and North Carolina. The Mayans, Aztecs, Delawares, and Chippewas developed hieroglyphic writing systems. Cherokee is the only Native American language with a syllabary. Cherokee has few individual words. There is a precise system for elaborating each basic word. Verbs are short phrases that tell what happened, when it happened, and how it happened. Nouns are descriptive. For example: A horse is "so qui li", or “he carries heavy things”. The language has had two dialects since the Trail of Tears. In 1838 and 1839, most Cherokees were forcibly moved to Oklahoma. A few hid in the hills and caves of North Carolina, and their descendants speak the eastern dialect. Because of a renewed interest in their cultural heritage, more Cherokees are learning their language. In 2000, there were 281,093 Cherokee descendants in America.
Cherokee Nation Cultural Resource Center. All rights reserved. Edited by Michael Hawes
Aldous Leonard Huxley, (1894-1963), English novelist, essayist, critic, and poet, grandson of Thomas and brother of Julian, born in Godalming, Surrey, and educated at Eton College and the University of Oxford. He worked on various periodicals and published four books of verse before the appearance of his first novel, Crome Yellow (1921). The novels, Antic Hay (1923) and Point Counter Point (1928), both illustrate the nihilistic temper of the 1920s, and Brave New World (1932), an ironic vision of a future utopia, established Huxley's fame. During the 1920s he lived mostly in Italy and in France. He immigrated to the United States in 1937. Among his more than 45 books are these volumes of essays: Jesting Pilate (1926), Ends and Means (1937), Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow (1956), Brave New World Revisited (1958), and Literature and Science (1963). Other novels include: Eyeless in Gaza (1936), After Many a Summer Dies the Swan (1939), Ape and Essence (1948), and Island (1962). Huxley also wrote on science, philosophy, and social criticism. Important nonfiction works include: The Art of Seeing (1932), The Perennial Philosophy (1946), and The Devils of Loudon (1952). The Doors of Perception (1954) and its sequel, Heaven and Hell (1956), were inspired by Huxley's experiences with hallucinogens.
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Edited by Michael Hawes