the biographical sketches
Garry Kimovich Kasparov was born as Garri Weinstein in Baku, Azerbaijan, in 1963. He learned chess from his father, who died when Garri was seven years old. He subsequently adopted his mother's maiden name. At the age of twelve, Kasparov won the Azerbaijan championship and the USSR junior championship. At the age of sixteen, he won the world junior championship. At the age of seventeen, he earned the International Grandmaster title. In 1984 he earned the right to challenge the Russian world champion, Anatoly Karpov. At the age of twenty-two, in 1985, he became the youngest world chess champion in history. He defended his title and defeated Karpov again, in 1986. In 1987, their contest resulted in an impasse. Kasparov defeated Karpov again, in 1990. In 1993, the competition was stopped, by Florencio Campomanes, the president of the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE). It was because the competition had lasted six months without a final result. Karpov requested that the competition be stopped for several months, so he could rest and study before resuming the battle. This was unprecedented, and Kasparov was furious. He broke away from FIDE and created the Professional Chess Association (PCA). Kasparov played a PCA championship competition against Nigel Short. Meanwhile, FIDE sanctioned a championship competition between Karpov and Jan Timman. Kasparov and Karpov won their respective competitions, and both men claimed the title of world champion. In 1995 Kasparov retained his PCA title and defeated Viswanathan Anand, but the PCA was dissolved soon afterward.
In 1996, Kasparov competed against an IBM computer, Deep Blue. It was the first time a world champion had competed against a computer under standard competition conditions. Deep Blue was capable of processing millions of chess positions per second. With the brute force of artificial intelligence, Deep Blue won the first game of the competition. It was the first computer to defeat a world champion, under regulation time controls. Kasparov subsequently defeated Deep Blue by a score of four games to two, and won the competition. A year later, Kasparov played against an enhanced version of Deep Blue. This machine was capable of processing two-hundred million chess positions per second. Kasparov won the first game, but was defeated by a score of 3.5 games to 2.5. It was the first time that an international grandmaster had lost a series of games to a computer. In November 2000, Kasparov lost his world title in a competition against his former pupil, Vladimir Kramnik.
SourcesMicrosoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Edited by Michael Hawes